Introduction to Fungi

Book Details

Title Introduction to fungi
Author Webster, John and Weber, Roland
Edition First
Year 2007
Publisher Cambridge University Press

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Webster, J. and Weber, R., 2007. Introduction to fungi. Cambridge University Press.

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Deskripsi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 What are fungi? 1

1.2 Physiology of the growing hypha 3

1.3 Hyphal aggregates 14

1.4 Spores of fungi 22

1.5 Taxonomy of fungi 32

Chapter 2 Protozoa: Myxomycota (slimemoulds) 40

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Acrasiomycetes: acrasid cellular slime moulds 40

2.3 Dictyosteliomycetes: dictyostelid slime moulds 41

2.4 Protosteliomycetes: protostelid plasmodial slime moulds 45

2.5 Myxomycetes: true (plasmodial) slime moulds 47

Chapter 3 Protozoa: Plasmodiophoromycota 54

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Plasmodiophorales 54

3.3 Control of diseases caused by Plasmodiophorales 62

3.4 Haptoglossa (Haptoglossales) 64

Chapter 4 Straminipila: minor fungal phyla 67

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 The straminipilous flagellum 68

4.3 Hyphochytriomycota 70

4.4 Labyrinthulomycota 71

Chapter 5 Straminipila: Oomycota 75

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Saprolegniales 79

5.3 Pythiales 95

5.4 Peronosporales 115

5.5 Sclerosporaceae 125

Chapter 6 Chytridiomycota 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Chytridiales 134

6.3 Spizellomycetales 145

6.4 Neocallimastigales (rumen fungi) 150

6.5 Blastocladiales 153

6.6 Monoblepharidales 162

Chapter 7 Zygomycota 165

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Zygomycetes: Mucorales 165

7.3 Examples of Mucorales 180

7.4 Zoopagales 200

7.5 Entomophthorales 202

7.6 Glomales 217

7.7 Trichomycetes 222

Chapter 8 Ascomycota (ascomycetes) 226

8.1 Introduction 226

8.2 Vegetative structures 226

8.3 Life cycles of ascomycetes 228

8.4 Conidia of ascomycetes 230

8.5 Conidium production in ascomycetes 231

8.6 Development of asci 236

8.7 Types of fruit body 245

8.8 Fossil ascomycetes 246

8.9 Scientific and economic significance of ascomycetes 246

8.10 Classification 247

Chapter 9 Archiascomycetes 250

9.1 Introduction 250

9.2 Taphrinales 251

9.3 Schizosaccharomycetales 253

9.4 Pneumocystis 259

Chapter 10 Hemiascomycetes 261

10.1 Introduction 261

10.2 Saccharomyces (Saccharomycetaceae) 263

10.3 Candida (anamorphic Saccharomycetales) 276

10.4 Pichia (Saccharomycetaceae) 281

10.5 Galactomyces (Dipodascaceae) 281

10.6 Saccharomycopsis (Saccharomycopsidaceae) 282

10.7 Eremothecium (Eremotheciaceae) 284

Chapter 11 Plectomycetes 285

11.1 Introduction 285

11.2 Ascosphaerales 286

11.3 Onygenales 289

11.4 Eurotiales 297

Chapter 12 Hymenoascomycetes: Pyrenomycetes 315

12.1 Introduction 315

12.2 Sordariales 315

12.3 Xylariales 332

12.4 Hypocreales 337

12.5 Clavicipitales 348

12.6 Ophiostomatales 364

12.7 Microascales 368

12.8 Diaporthales 373

12.9 Magnaporthaceae 377

12.10 Glomerellaceae 386

Chapter 13 Hymenoascomycetes: Erysiphales 390

13.1 Introduction 390

13.2 Phylogenetic aspects 392

13.3 Blumeria graminis 393

13.4 Erysiphe 401

13.5 Podosphaera and Sphaerotheca 404

13.6 Sawadaea 405

13.7 Phyllactinia and Leveillula 405

13.8 Control of powdery mildew diseases 408

Chapter 14 Hymenoascomycetes: Pezizales (operculate discomycetes) 414

14.1 Introduction 414

14.2 Pyronema (Pyronemataceae) 415

14.3 Aleuria (Pyronemataceae) 417

14.4 Peziza (Pezizaceae) 419

14.5 Ascobolus (Ascobolaceae) 419

14.6 Helvella (Helvellaceae) 423

14.7 Tuber (Tuberaceae) 423

14.8 Morchella (Morchellaceae) 427

Chapter 15 Hymenoascomycetes: Helotiales (inoperculate discomycetes) 429

15.1 Introduction 429

15.2 Sclerotiniaceae 429

15.3 Dermateaceae 439

15.4 Rhytismataceae 440

15.5 Other representatives of the Helotiales 442

Chapter 16 Lichenized fungi (chiefly Hymenoascomycetes: Lecanorales) 446

16.1 Introduction 446

16.2 General aspects of lichen biology 447

16.3 Lecanorales 455

Chapter 17 Loculoascomycetes 459

17.1 Introduction 459

17.2 Pleosporales 460

17.3 Dothideales 480

Chapter 18 Basidiomycota 487

18.1 Introduction 487

18.2 Basidium morphology 487

18.3 Development of basidia 488

18.4 Basidiospore development 490

18.5 The mechanism of basidiospore discharge 493

18.6 Numbers of basidiospores 495

18.7 Basidiospore germination and hyphal growth 496

18.8 Asexual reproduction 501

18.9 Mating systems in basidiomycetes 506

18.10 Fungal individualism: vegetative incompatibility between dikaryons 510

18.11 Relationships 511

18.12 Classification 512

Chapter 19 Homobasidiomycetes 514

19.1 Introduction 514

19.2 Structure and morphogenesis of basidiocarps 517

19.3 Importance of homobasidiomycetes 525

19.4 Euagarics clade 532

19.5 Boletoid clade 555

19.6 Polyporoid clade 560

19.7 Russuloid clade 566

19.8 Thelephoroid clade 572

19.9 Hymenochaetoid clade 573

19.10 Cantharelloid clade 574

19.11 Gomphoid_phalloid clade 575

Chapter 20 Homobasidiomycetes: gasteromycetes 577

20.1 Introduction 577

20.2 Evolution and phylogeny of gasteromycetes 578

20.3 Gasteromycetes in the euagarics clade 581

20.4 Gasteromycetes in the boletoid clade 585

20.5 Gasteromycetes in the gomphoid_phalloid clade 588

Chapter 21 Heterobasidiomycetes 593

21.1 Introduction 593

21.2 Ceratobasidiales 594

21.3 Dacrymycetales 598

21.4 Auriculariales 601

21.5 Tremellales 604

Chapter 22 Urediniomycetes: Uredinales (rust fungi) 609

22.1 Urediniomycetes 609

22.2 Uredinales: the rust fungi 609

22.3 Puccinia graminis, the cause of black stem rust 620

22.4 Other cereal rusts 627

22.5 Puccinia and Uromyces 629

22.6 Other members of the Pucciniaceae 631

22.7 Melampsoraceae 634

Chapter 23 Ustilaginomycetes: smut fungi and their allies 636

23.1 Ustilaginomycetes 636

23.2 The ‘true’smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) 636

23.3 Microbotryales (Urediniomycetes) 652

23.4 Exobasidiales (Ustilaginomycetes) 655

Chapter 24 Basidiomycete yeasts 658

24.1 Introduction 658

24.2 Heterobasidiomycete yeasts 660

24.3 Urediniomycete yeasts 666

24.4 Ustilaginomycete yeasts 670

Chapter 25 Anamorphic fungi (nematophagous and aquatic forms) 673

25.1 Nematophagous fungi 673

25.2 Aquatic hyphomycetes (Ingoldian fungi) 685

25.3 Aero-aquatic fungi 696

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