Methods in Cell Biology vol 83: Cell mechanics

Book Details

Title Methods in Cell Biology vol 83: Cell Mechanics
Author Wang, Yu-li and Discher, Dennis E
Year 2007
Publisher Academic press


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Wang, Y.L. and Discher, D.E. eds., 2007. Cell mechanics (Vol. 83). Academic press.

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Table of Contents

PART I Basic Concept and Preparation Culture Substrates for Cell Mechanical Studies

1. Basic Rheology for Biologists

Paul A. Janmey, Penelope C. Georges, and Søren Hvidt
I. Introduction and Rationale
II. Rheological Concepts
III. Rheological Instrumentation
IV. Experimental Design
V. Sample Preparation
VI. Special Considerations for Biological Samples
VII. Conclusions

2. Polyacrylamide Hydrogels for Cell Mechanics: Steps Toward Optimization and Alternative Uses

Casey E. Kandow, Penelope C. Georges, Paul A. Janmey, and Karen A. Beningo

I. Introduction
II. Principle of the Polyacrylamide Hydrogel
III. Conjugation of Proteins to Polyacrylamide
IV. Optimizing the Placement of Beads for Traction Force Microscopy
V. Manipulation of Gel Geometry
VI. Concluding Remarks

3. Microscopic Methods for Measuring the Elasticity of Gel Substrates for Cell Culture: Microspheres, Microindenters, and Atomic Force Microscopy

Margo T. Frey, Adam Engler, Dennis E. Discher, Juliet Lee, and Yu-Li Wang
I. Introduction
II. Probing with Microspheres Under Gravitational Forces
III. Atomic Force Microscopy
IV. Probing with Spherically Tipped Glass Microindenters
V. Conclusions

4. Surface Patterning

Irene Y. Tsai, Alfred J. Crosby, and Thomas P. Russell
I. Introduction
II. Patterning with Electrodynamic Instabilities
III. Lithography Without a Clean Room
IV. Patterning at the Micro- and Nanoscale with Polymer Mixtures and Block Copolymers 80
V. Summary

5. Molecular Engineering of Cellular Environments: Cell Adhesion to Nano-Digital Surfaces

Joachim P. Spatz and Benjamin Geiger
I. Introduction: Sensing Cellular Environments
II. Nano-Digital Chemical Surfaces for Regulating
Transmembrane–Receptor Clustering
III. Outlook for the Future

PART II Subcellular Mechanical Properties and Activities

6. Probing Cellular Mechanical Responses to Stimuli Using Ballistic Intracellular Nanorheology

Porntula Panorchan, Jerry S. H. Lee, Brian R. Daniels, Thomas P. Kole, Yiider Tseng, and Denis Wirtz

I. Introduction
II. Materials and Instrumentation
III. Procedures
IV. Pearls and Pitfalls
V. Concluding Remarks

7. Multiple-Particle Tracking and Two-Point Microrheology in Cells

John C. Crocker and Brenton D. Hoffman
I. Introduction
II. Principles of Passive Tracer Microrheology
III. Multiple-Particle Tracking Algorithms
IV. Computing Rheology from Tracer Trajectories
V. Error Sources in Multiple-Particle Tracking
VI. Instrument Requirements for High-Performance Tracking
VII. Example: Cultured Epithelial Cells
VIII. Conclusions and Future Directions

8. Imaging Stress Propagation in the Cytoplasm of a Living Cell

Ning Wang, Shaohua Hu, and James P. Butler

I. Introduction
II. Detecting External Stress-Induced Displacements in the Cytoplasm
III. Imaging Displacement and Stress Maps in a Live Cell
IV. Future Prospects

9. Probing Intracellular Force Distributions by High-Resolution Live Cell Imaging and Inverse Dynamics

Lin Ji, Dinah Loerke, Margaret Gardel, and Gaudenz Danuser

I. Introduction
II. Methods
III. Summary
IV. Appendix

10. Analysis of Microtubule Curvature

Andrew D. Bicek, Erkan Tu¨zel, Daniel M. Kroll, and David J. Odde

I. Introduction
II. Rationale
III. Raw Data Collection
IV. Validation Strategy
V. Curvature Estimation Methods
VI. Results
VII. Discussion
VIII. Conclusions

11. Nuclear Mechanics and Methods

Jan Lammerding, Kris Noel Dahl, Dennis E. Discher, and Roger D. Kamm

I. Introduction
II. Experimental Methods for Probing Nuclear Mechanical Properties
III. Discussion and Prospects
IV. Outlook

PART III Cellular and Embryonic Mechanical Properties and Activities

12. The Use of Gelatin Substrates for Traction Force Microscopy in Rapidly Moving Cells

Juliet Lee

I. Introduction
II. Rationale
III. Methods
IV. Applications of the Gelatin Traction Force Assay to Study Mechano-signal Transduction in Moving Keratocytes
V. Other Applications and Future Directions
VI. Summary

13. Microfabricated Silicone Elastomeric Post Arrays for Measuring Traction Forces of Adherent Cells

Nathan J. Sniadecki and Christopher S. Chen

I. Introduction
II. Microfabrication of the Micropost Arrays
III. Characterization of Micropost Spring Constant
IV. Analysis of Traction Forces Through Micropost Deflections
V. Experimental Applications of Microposts and Discussion References

14. Cell Adhesion Strengthening: Measurement and Analysis

Kristin E. Michael and Andre´s J. Garcı´a

I. Introduction
II. The Cell Adhesion Process
III. Measurement Systems for Adhesion Characterization
IV. Hydrodynamic Assay for Quantifying Adhesion Strength
V. Quantitative Biochemical Methods for Adhesion Analysis
VI. Simple Mathematical Modeling of Adhesion Strengthening Mechanics
VII. Discussion

15. Studying the Mechanics of Cellular Processes by Atomic Force Microscopy Manfred Radmacher

I. Introduction
II. Instrumentation and Operation Modes
III. Operating Modes
IV. Investigations of Live Cells
V. Outlook

16. Using Force to Probe Single-Molecule Receptor–Cytoskeletal Anchoring Beneath the Surface of a Living Cell

Evan Evans and Koji Kinoshita

I. Generic Methods and Physical Foundations
II. Probing Bonds at Cell Surfaces
III. Future Challenge and Opportunity

17. High-Throughput Rheological Measurements with an Optical Stretcher

Bryan Lincoln, Falk Wottawah, Stefan Schinkinger, Susanne Ebert, and Jochen Guck

I. Introduction
II. Rationale
III. Methods
IV. Additional Notes on Equipment
V. Discussion
VI. Summary

18. Measuring Mechanical Properties of Embryos and Embryonic Tissues

Lance Davidson and Ray Keller

I. Introduction
II. Applying and Measuring Forces of 10 nN to 10uN
III. Nanonewton Force Apparatus: Parts, Function, and Operation
IV. Preparation of Tissue Samples
V. Measurement of the Time-Dependent Elasticity of Embryos or Tissue Explants
VI. Spring and Dashpot Models of Viscoelasticity Represent More Complex Structural Sources
VII. Challenges of Working with Embryonic Tissues
VIII. Use of Standard Engineering Terms and Units
IX. Future Prospects

PART IV Mechanical Stimuli to Cells

19. Tools to Study Cell Mechanics and Mechanotransduction

Tanmay P. Lele, Julia E. Sero, Benjamin D. Matthews, Sanjay Kumar, Shannon Xia, Martin Montoya-Zavala, Thomas Polte, Darryl Overby, Ning Wang, and Donald E. Ingber

I. Introduction
II. Control of Cell Shape, Cytoskeletal Organization, and Cell Fate Switching
III. Probing Cell Mechanics, Cytoskeletal Structure, and Mechanotransduction
IV. Discussion and Future Implications

20. Magnetic Tweezers in Cell Biology

Monica Tanase, Nicolas Biais, and Michael Sheetz

I. Introduction
II. Physics of Magnetic Tweezers
III. Magnetic Field Considerations
IV. Magnetic Particle Selection
V. Basic Solenoid Apparatus
VI. Force Calibration
VII. Experimental Procedures

21. Optical Neuronal Guidance

Allen Ehrlicher, Timo Betz, Bjo¨rn Stuhrmann, Michael Go¨gler, Daniel Koch, Kristian Franze, Yunbi Lu, and Josef Ka¨s

I. Introduction
II. Apparatus
III. Experiments
IV. Plausible Mechanisms of Optical Guidance
V. Summary

22. Microtissue Elasticity: Measurements by Atomic Force Microscopy and Its Influence on Cell DiVerentiation

Adam J. Engler, Florian Rehfeldt, Shamik Sen, and Dennis E. Discher

I. Introduction
II. AFM in Microelasticity Measurements
III. Materials Characterization
IV. Assessing Mechanical Influences on Cells

23. Demystifying the EVects of a Three-Dimensional Microenvironment in Tissue Morphogenesis

Kandice R. Johnson, Jennifer L. Leight, and Valerie M. Weaver

I. Introduction
II. Rationale
III. Methods
IV. Materials
V. Discussion


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